We are discussing the Aguinaldo sample problem. This is Part 1 of a series of posts which started here.

Emilio has N relatives. During Christmas, the first relative gives him P pesos as a gift. For 2 \leq i \leq N, the ith relative gives exactly the same amount as the (i-1)th relative. How much is the total money that Emilio receives from his relatives?

This is the problem statement. This is just like the problems you get in your math classes. The main difference is that instead of numbers, it usually involves variables.

The problem statement starts by talking about two variables N and P. Upon reading it, we see that N is the number of Emilio’s relatives and P is the amount of money given to him by the first relative.

It then talks about how much the other relatives give. The ith relative is said to give exactly the same amount as the i-1th relative. This statement only applies when 2 \leq i \leq N. And so, it means that the 2nd relative gives exactly the same amount as the 1st relative. And so, the 2nd relative also gives P. Similarly, the 3rd relative gives exactly the same as the 2nd relative. And so on.

Somewhere at the end of the problem statement, you will usually see a question. In our case, we want to know the total money Emilio receives from his relatives.